Abstract The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee reviewed and approved the "Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Several Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms", and proposed the overall objectives, general direction, timetable, etc. of comprehensively deepening reforms, and systematically deployed reforms. The communique of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee outlines the road to reform...The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee deliberated and adopted the "Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Several Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms", and proposed the overall objectives, general direction, timetable, etc. of comprehensively deepening reforms, and systematically deployed reforms.
What kind of reform roadmap is outlined in the communiquÃ© of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee? What important reform signals are released behind many new formulations, new highlights, and new initiatives? Yang Weimin, deputy director of the Central Financial and Economic Leading Group Office, who participated in the drafting of the "Decision", gave the following introduction.
"One theme and six main lines" lock the direction of reform
Yang Weimin: The theme set by the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee is to comprehensively deepen the reform, which is different from the six Third Plenary Sessions since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee. Although the previous 3rd Plenary Sessions also focused on reforms, the theme was only a certain aspect of reform, and this plenary session focused on comprehensively deepening reforms, including economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological civilizations, as well as national defense and military and party. Various reforms such as the construction system. To determine such a theme, it is compatible with the overall layout of the "five in one" of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics, and with the current reform situation. In the period of reform and the deep waters, only by insisting on comprehensive reform can we continue to deepen reform.
The Plenary Session pointed out that the overall goal of comprehensively deepening reform is to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and promote the modernization of the national governance system and capabilities. The general direction is to adhere to the direction of socialist market economic reform. The Plenary Session put forward six "closely", which are the main lines of reform in the six fields of economy, politics, culture, society, ecological civilization and party building, reflecting the basic concepts of reform in six fields.
Taking the reform of the economic sector as an example, the Plenary Session proposed that â€œthe market should be closely related to making the decisive role in resource allocation to deepen the reform of the economic systemâ€, which means all economic fields such as basic economic system, market system, fiscal and taxation finance, land system, and macroeconomic regulation. Reform must be carried out and promoted around the main line of â€œmaking the market play a decisive role in resource allocationâ€. Each field proposed by the Plenary has its own specific main line and direction. Not only will the overall direction of reform be completely lost, but reforms in each area will not be biased.
Give play to the traction of the "locomotive" of economic system reform
Yang Weimin: Although the theme of the plenary session is to comprehensively deepen reforms, it adheres to the principle of problem-oriented and regards economic system reform as the focus of comprehensive deepening reforms, emphasizing the role of economic system reform in the reform of other areas. This is also an important principle that is very important to grasp during the drafting of the Decision. Of the 15 reform tasks identified in the Decision, 6 are economics and 1 is an ecological civilization system closely related to the economy, accounting for nearly half of all reform tasks.
The reason why the reform of the economic system is the focus is because the most prominent and fundamental problem that exists in China today is still the issue of development. China is in the middle of the â€œmiddle income trapâ€ stage. The next step is to face many difficulties and risks. The conditions for supporting rapid growth in the past are also changing. Only by accelerating economic reform can we release more development momentum.
"Comprehensive deepening reform leadership group" + "reform timetable" reforms unprecedented
Yang Weimin: Regarding the reform measures, there are always people in the society who are worried that it is difficult to put them in place. The plenary session demonstrated the determination of the new central leadership collective to reform the reform through some powerful measures, and vigorously implemented the policy of ensuring that the reform "does not empty the gun."
First, the central government set up a comprehensive and deepening reform leading group, responsible for reforming the overall design, overall coordination, overall promotion, and supervision and implementation. The current reform has reached the crucial stage of adjusting the pattern of interests. It is very difficult to promote all-round reforms by one department alone. A high-level organization is needed to grasp the overall situation and make decisions, coordinate and coordinate all aspects, consolidate reform consensus, implement supervision and inspection, and prevent reform. "Stop the gun."
The second is a clear timetable for â€œdecisive results in reforms in key areas and key links by 2020â€. This means that the remaining seven years must complete the reform tasks proposed in the Decision. This timetable sets the final boundaries and bottom line for reforms for various departments and localities, indicating that these reform tasks are measurable, measurable, and Implemented.
After more than half a year of drafting, the "Decision" after the slogan is a reform, and the words have strength. About 20,000 words, 60 specific tasks in 15 fields, each sentence is reform, or a reform direction, or a reform goal, or a reform initiative, which will have a major impact on the development and institutional mechanisms of the field. Some even bring about fundamental changes.
Participating in the drafting and revision of the "Decision" is deeply remembered by two important principles: First, only reforms are written during the drafting, especially major reforms, and the tasks of development are not written in principle; second, when it is revised, it is possible to weaken reforms. Strength, unless there are special reasons, generally do not modify. The increased reform tasks are written as long as there is a certain common denominator and a certain consensus. I heard many participants said that they did not expect it. It was very unexpected that the reforms were unprecedented, fully demonstrating the reform determination and courage of the Party Central Committee to dare to face hardship and courage.
The market has changed from â€œbasic roleâ€ to â€œdecisive roleâ€ in resource allocation.
Yang Weimin: The communique changed the "basic role" of the past market in resource allocation to "decisive role". The change of the two words is of great significance. It is the biggest highlight of the "Decision" and a major theoretical innovation. It is a socialist The improvement of the "quality" of the market economy is also the basic policy for deepening the reform of the economic system and reforms in other fields in the future. Its future impact will be no less than the goal of the establishment of the socialist market economic system reform proposed by the Third Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee.
Why should I change? The first is to seize the essential characteristics of the socialist market economic system - to produce as many products as possible with as little resources as possible. In the past, it emphasized that the market played a "basic role" in resource allocation, and played a role in market allocation of resources under the state's macroeconomic regulation and control, but it could not maximize market efficiency. The change of the two words has seized the deepest problem of China's economic system reform, which means that other resources, such as the government, can influence and guide resource allocation on the issue of resource allocation, but the decision maker can only be the market.
The second is to clarify the main line and road map for economic system reform. At present, everyone is looking for a breakthrough in reform. The communique proposes to make the market play a decisive role in resource allocation and clarify the breakthroughs and roadmap for the next step of reform. In the future, all economic reforms should be based on whether or not to play a decisive role in the allocation of resources in the market. Some of the reforms promoted this year, including the decline in economic growth in the first half of the year, the outside world is expecting the government to take the shot, but it has not moved, which reflects the role of relying on the market to stabilize the economy.
The third is to grasp the root of China's real economic problems. Although the reform of the socialist market economy system was initially established over the past 30 years, the current economic system is not perfect in many aspects. The core issue is that the government has too much direct allocation of resources and too many unreasonable interventions. Overcapacity, serious urban diseases, excessive use of cultivated land, local debt risks, and ecological environmental protection are all largely related to government intervention. Adhering to the direction of market-oriented reform is fundamental to solving real economic problems.
Clearly defined government functions and roles
Yang Weimin: Emphasizing that the market plays a decisive role in resource allocation, and it does not negate or weaken the role of the government. In the modern economy, the role of the market and the government is equally important, but the role is different. As far as resource allocation is concerned, the role of government is to guide and influence resource allocation rather than directly configuring resources.
At the same time, only by defining the functions and functions of the government, the government can not make the market play a decisive role in resource allocation, so as to solve the problem that the current government duties are offside, absent, and inconsistent. The "Decision" clearly defines the functions and functions of the government. It can be summarized as five functions and 20 words, namely macro regulation, market supervision, public service, social management, and protection of the environment.
In addition, compared with the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this plenary session did not mention economic adjustment, because this concept is too broad, leaving room for government intervention in resource allocation, and contradicting the market's decision on resource allocation.
Put forward new goals of advancing the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity
Yang Weimin: One of the highlights of the plenary communiquÃ© is the new goal of advancing the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity. This is a brand new concept and formulation. In the past, we said that modernization of construction is proposed from the perspectives of economic, political, cultural, and social construction, and the new goal is to modernize from the institutional level and enrich the connotation of China's modernization.
The level of national governance is an important indicator to test whether a social system is relatively perfect and relatively stereotyped, and puts forward higher requirements for the construction of a socialist system with Chinese characteristics.
The communique replaced â€œsocial managementâ€ with â€œsocial governanceâ€ and embodied the pluralism of the subject. The difference between governance and management lies in the fact that governance is the government, the market, and the social organization. The party, the people's congress, the government, the CPPCC and other multi-subjects carry out the state's governance together, rather than relying on only one kind of power. This is a manifestation of democracy. The "promoting the development of a broad and multi-layered system of deliberative democracy" proposed in the communique is an important part of advancing the national governance system and governance capacity.
A mature social system must rely on the law. The communiquÃ© enumerates the need for a sound system in different fields, indicating that the future state governance will be the rule of law, no longer simply imperative or simply by administrative means.
Defining the central and local powers to become the focus of fiscal and taxation system reform
Yang Weimin: The Plenary Session proposed that finance is the foundation and important pillar of state governance. It is pointed out that the fiscal and taxation system as an important part of the national system will become the focus of the next reform. After nearly 20 years of tax-sharing reform, some deep-seated problems in the fiscal and taxation system have gradually been exposed. For example, scarce resources lack tax system protection, tax systems cannot better play a role in regulating income gaps, and local lack of tax sources can only be financed by land sales. It is necessary to carry out an overall design of the fiscal and taxation system reform and establish a scientific fiscal and taxation system.
The outside world pays attention to the relationship between the central and local financial power and the relationship of affairs. The central government is the right to receive or release money. The plenary session proposes a system that is compatible with the responsibility of expenditure and expenditure. It means that the central and local powers will be more clearly defined and determined according to the authority. Responsibility for expenditure, to achieve an overall balance of financial and power relations, in the process should reduce the arbitrarily set special transfer payments in the future.
"Everything from the boss and the second child" treats all forms of ownership economy more fairly
Yang Weimin: At present, some obstacles in the development of the private economy and the "glass door" are rooted in the fact that we have not put the non-public economy in the same position as the public sector. A major breakthrough and innovation in the improvement of the basic economic system of the Plenary Session is to treat and understand all forms of ownership economy more equitably.
First, the Plenary Session proposed that the public-owned economy and the non-public economy are both important components of the socialist market economy and are important foundations for China's economic development. In the past, we supplemented the individual economy and the private economy, and later recognized it as an important part of the socialist market economy, but added the premise of â€œwithin the scope of the lawâ€. The 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China regarded the non-public economy as an important part of the socialist market economy, but did not talk about it with the public sector of the economy. Putting it together this time is an important part, very clear, indicating that there is no distinction between the boss and the second.
Second, in the protection of property rights, the use of production factors, participation in market competition, legal protection, market access, legal supervision, etc., all emphasize the key words of equality, fairness, justice and unity in all forms of ownership.
The third is to actively develop a mixed ownership economy. This is not a new concept, but it has new connotations and positioning. In the future, it is necessary to develop a mixed-ownership economy with state-owned capital holdings, and also to encourage the development of a mixed-ownership economy with non-public ownership of capital.
In addition, the "Decision" also has many new ideas and new tasks in deepening the reform of state-owned enterprises and state-owned assets. The next step is bound to set off the second wave of state-owned enterprise reform.
The first systematic interpretation of the system of ecological civilization
Yang Weimin: At present, China's resource constraints are tight, environmental pollution is serious, and ecosystems are degraded. The situation is still very serious. There are deep-seated institutional reasons behind the reforms, the imperfect systems, and the imperfect mechanisms. On this issue, the government is not interfering too much, but the intervention is too little, not the government is offside, but it is far from being in place.
The Plenary Session proposed to focus on building a beautiful China to deepen the reform of the ecological civilization system. For the first time, it established the ecological civilization system. From the source, process, and consequences, the ecological process was elaborated in accordance with the idea of â€‹â€‹â€œstrict source prevention, strict process control, and severe punishmentâ€. The composition of the civilized system and its reform direction and key tasks.
The system of strict prevention at the source is to prevent damage to the ecological environment at the source, including the improvement of the system of property rights and the control of the use of natural resources assets;
The strict process of the process is to establish a system to restrict local and corporate behaviors in the process of development and development, including delineating ecological red lines, implementing paid use of resources and ecological compensation systems, and giving full play to the leverage of taxation and prices;
The system of severe punishment for the consequences is to establish a strict damage liability compensation system. In the past, violations of laws, regulations and relevant regulations, many of the past penalties are symbolic and cannot compensate for the long-term damage to the ecological environment and people's health. In the future, local leaders who cause damage to the ecological environment must be held accountable for life. They must be severely punished for the enterprises, so that the local officials can pay the price of losing the "black hat" and let the enterprises pay the real money and silver, so that they will not dare to destroy the ecological environment in the future.
Comprehensively deepening reforms will ultimately benefit all people.
Yang Weimin: The plenary session clearly stated that the reform should "start and end with the promotion of social fairness and justice and the promotion of people's well-being." This guiding ideology shows that comprehensively deepening reforms must ultimately benefit all people.
There are indeed some unfair and unequal systems in China's current system. For example, natural monopoly industries need to adjust interest relations, relax market access, and allow capital in other fields to enter. Regarding how to divide the cake for development, the communique has already clarified the reform idea of â€‹â€‹â€œmore fair and more beneficial to all peopleâ€.
The "Decision" adopted by the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee is the action plan and marching horn of the new Party Central Committee to mobilize the entire party and the people of all nationalities to comprehensively deepen reforms. Under the current situation, only a comprehensive deepening of reforms can lead the country's development across the "middle income trap" stage, overcome various social contradictions and risks, comprehensively promote the construction of a well-off society, and promote the Chinese dream of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
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