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Abstract: Allicin is a well-recognized safety product with a variety of biological functions such as attracting growth, understanding (toxic), promoting the colonization of beneficial bacteria, activating immune system development and resisting stress. application. However, in recent years, due to the blurring of the definition of the main components and content of allicin, the application of allicin products has been limited. This paper focuses on the theoretical basis of the production of natural allicin, the analysis of the main indicators of allicin at home and abroad, the harm of chloropropene and the comparison of diallyl trisulfide and disulfide to make a clear definition of allicin products. understanding.
Key words : allicin; chloropropene; diallyl trisulfide; diallyl disulfide
Garlic (Allium sativum L.), a subterranean bulb belonging to the family Allium of Liliaceae, is a global, universally recognized drug-drinking plant . The ancient Egyptian medical literature "Codex Ebers" records hundreds of treatments for garlic, which can treat 22 different diseases such as heart disease, intestinal parasites and tumors; the ancient Indian medical literature "Bower Manuscript" records that garlic can be used for anti-fatigue and treatment. Digestive disorders, parasitic diseases, etc., Indian medical founder Chalac evaluates the actual value of garlic higher than gold; the United States calls garlic products "smelly roses"; Russia calls garlic "the penicillin grown in the land" [2, 3].
China has "the garlic is listed, the drug store is closed" . In the Ming Dynasty, Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" records: "Garlic, its smoldering spirit, through the five internal organs, reaching the sputum, licking cold and dampness, avoiding evil, reducing swelling and pain, and accumulating food, this work is also ". Uyghur doctors believe that garlic has the functions of strong body, qi, Shengjin, digestion, sweating, bowel, dehumidification and detoxification .
1. The theoretical basis of natural allicin production
In 1844, the German chemist Theodor Wertheim distilled garlic with steam distillation to obtain garlic oil with pungent odor. In 1944, Italian chemist Gavallito first discovered that garlic has medicinal value of garlic volatile oil and garlic oil, but it only accounts for garlic. 0.2% content [7,8]. In 1948, Arthur Stoll and Ewald Seebeck believed that the complete garlic tissue was not spicy, but contained only a colorless and odorless needle-like alliin (Alliin), consisting of 85% S-allylic alliin, 2 It consists of % propyl alliin and 13% S-methyl alliin. When garlic tissue is damaged, alliin is in contact with garlic (Allinase) located in other parts or cells, and a complex is first formed with the participation of pyridoxia Phoshate coenzyme. After decomposition, it is a volatile substance with a strong spicy taste, allicin. The allicin is extremely unstable, and it is degraded into various sulfur-containing organic compounds by light, heat or organic solvent, thereby forming a garlic-flavored flavor of garlic . This is also the internationally recognized garlic triggering theory, as shown in Figure 1, 2 . However, Zhang Xuejun  and others believe that because the triggering reaction is achieved by molecular motion, the low molecular weight three-molecule contact reaction is impossible to complete in an instant; the alliin is in the starch formed by the reduction of glucose. It lacks the oxidizing environment and sulfoxide enzyme forming sulfoxide; the sulfur-containing compound of sulfoxide structure is relatively stable and does not have strong antibacterial disinfection effect, but the non-destructive garlic clove under the pharynx has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Urgently above, they believe that alliin should not have a relatively stable sulfoxide structure (S-allyl-L-cysteine â€‹â€‹sulfoxide), but a thioether structure that is easily oxidatively decomposed (S-allyl Base-L-cysteine, and associated with garlic enzyme, is immediately oxidized to sulfoxide in the presence of oxygen in the air.
Figure 1 garlic enzyme enzymatic hydrolysis of alliin produces
Figure 2: Diallyl sulfide produced by the degradation of
2. Analysis of the main indicators of allicin at home and abroad
Regardless of the above theory, we recognize that garlic changes from alliin form to allicin and finally to a mixture of diallyl trisulfide (allicin) and diallyl disulfide. . Because of this, the Pharmacopoeias of different countries have different regulations on the quality standards of allicin and its products. In the 1977 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Part I), the quality standards for garlic medicinal materials were included . In the following versions of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, there was no garlic quality standard. The 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Part I) was re-packaged. The quality standard of garlic medicinal materials , compared with the 1977 version, increased the amount of extract, identification, inspection, content determination and "return". Allitricin (diallyl trisulfide) is used as an indicator component for identification and content determination and quality control.
In 2000, the United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary (USP24-NF19) began to contain Garlic and Powered Garlic . 2001, 2002, 2003 [15-17]. In addition to the garlic and garlic powder, Garlic Fluidextract, Powered Garlic Extact, GarlicDelayed Relapse Tablets were gradually added. The US Pharmacopoeia and the UK/EU Pharmacopoeia mainly use Alliin, a special sulfur-containing amino acid of Allicin or its precursor, as an indicator component of garlic and its preparations [18-20]. Compared with allicin, allicin has no sulfoxide group in its structure. Although its chemical properties are stable compared with allicin, it is currently synthesized by artificial chemical synthesis. Therefore, the United States Pharmacopoeia, the United Kingdom / European Union Pharmacopoeia has been the use of allicin or its precursor garlicin as an indicator component to control the quality of garlic and its preparations.
At present, the domestically approved medicinal allicin is prepared by chemical synthesis. The quality standard stipulates that allicin is diallyl trisulfide, so the synthesis process uses diallyl trisulfide as the target compound. This is why the Chinese Pharmacopoeia currently uses allicin as the main quality control standard ingredient for garlic quality standards. However, many domestically reported allicin mostly uses diallyl disulfide as the target compound . Allicin used in veterinary and aquatic products is also mostly synthetic products. The artificially synthesized allicin mainly represents the quality of the allicin product by the content of the mixture of diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide.
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